End of Term Botanical Survey
Part 1: CC Values
– Low Coefficients of conservatism (CC) Values:
Pokeweed: Plant #1
This type of plant is an American Pokeweed that is commonly found in Ohio. I identified this plant in a patch of woods near my family home in Newark, Ohio. This type of plant has a low CC value of 1. This is identifiable by its raceme of reddish and green berries. The leaves are simple and alternate, with a light green leaf color and a reddish-purple stem. These berries are simple fruits with one ovary and are from one single flower. Pokeweed is found near the edges of forests, in gardens, in fields, by fences, and many other places (Taylor).
Vibernum: Plant #2
This type of plant is what I identified as a Arrowwood viburnum. I found this plant growing in a patch of woods near my family home in Newark, Ohio. This has a low CC value being 2. This plant is identifiable by the blue berries on the ends of the branches. The leaves of this plant are simple and opposite, and they are rigidly lobed. This type of shrub is very tolerant to many different soil conditions, making it able to survive and be resistant to varying water levels (White Oak Nursery, 2014).
White Wood Aster: Plant #3
This types of Aster is one that I identified at Whetstone Park located in Columbus, Ohio. This is also a low CC plant, this being 5. This type of plant is identifiable by the white color of it, as well as having several white petals. The leaves are simple and alternate. The disk flower in the center has several carpels, and the ray flowers are white. The capitulum of these flowers are ligulate. Ecological, these Asters are found to be extremely tolerant to the affects of little rainfall in the environment, and this plant also provides food for insects for a long period of time throughout the year (National Park Service, 2016).
Blue Wood Aster: Plant #4
This is another type of Aster that I identified at Whetstone Park in Columbus, Ohio. This has a low CC value of 4. This plant is very identifiable by its blue color on its corollas. The leaves of this plant are alternate with simple and toothed leaves. There are like 10-ish ray flowers included in it. These flowers are in clusters of panicals. I also observed bracts on the stem of these plants. The capitulum of these flowers are ligulate. A Blue Wood Aster also stays bloomed throughout the year and pollinators can have these flowers even into fall (Johnson, 2020). These flowers are found on the outlines of forests and in flowered meadows in Ohio (Johnson, 2020).
– High Coefficients of conservatism (CC) Values:
Buckeye Tree: Plant #1
This type of plant is what I believe is a Yellow Buckeye tree. I identified this tree at Whetstone Park in Columbus, Ohio. I can visibly see that this tree’s leaves are palmately compound. Also, there are about 5 or 6 toothed leaves on each branch. The leaves on this tree are arranged oppositely. This tree has a high CC value of 7 and is conservative. This type of tree often thrives in a certain type of soil, this being well hydrated, rich, and acidic dirt in their environment (Arbor Day Foundation, 2020). The rich and wet soil aspect really makes sense for this plant considering that I found this tree very close to a river.
Paw Paw Tree: Plant #2
Asimina trilobaThis tree is a Pawpaw, which has a high CC value of 6. This type of tree I found at Whetstone Park in Columbus, Ohio. This type of tree has simple and alternate leaves. This type of tree has long and large leaves that are round and not toothed. There are many Pawpaw trees in many places at my particular site at Whetstone. This type of tree ecologically, is found in shaded, moist, rich, and flat land (Wikipedia, 2020). This makes perfect sense environmentally, because the land is by a river at Whetstone that has moist soil and does not contain any hilly grounds near it.
Dogwood Tree: Plant #3
This type of tree is a dogwood tree that is referred to as a Flowering dogwood, because it has red drupes that later form as a flower. I found this particular tree in Newark, Ohio in a patch of woods by my home. This tree has a high CC value of 5. I have previously identified dogwoods before, but I have never identified this specific type. It is very easy to identify because of the bright red drupes, but it also has alternate leaves. This type of tree is an extremely important food source for many animals, because many different types often eat the seeds or eat the leaves of this tree (USDA, 2004).
Sycamore: Plant #4
This type of tree is an American sycamore that I identified at Whetstone Park in Columbus, Ohio. It has a high CC value of 7. This plant is identifiable because it had features very similar to a maple, but larger leaves. They are simple and alternate, and have 3 point-like features on each of the leaves. An American sycamore is often found in flat and low areas, and are often found along streams, which is where I located this particular species at Whetstone (Sullivan, 1994). Near where I found this tree was a slight hill, and I found from web searches that this tree can often grow on uphill slopes in the forest (Sullivan, 1994).
Rose Bush: Plant #1
This bush is one that I identified as a rose bush. I found this to be a Multiflora rose, with has small opposite leaves. The stem of the bush is green and red thorns are alternately protruding on the stems. The leaves are toothed all around. This type of bush grows red roses in the spring. This type of shrub can often be found along the edges of fields or forests, or on roadsides, but they are often planted by people also (Wenning, 2012). Because they are invasive, they have no insects that are important in maintaining biocontrol over the plant, so it spreads very easily (Wenning, 2012).
Common Burdock: Plant #2
This type of plant is what I identified as a common burdock. The green leaves on this plant look like they are heart shaped and they are simple and alternate. The brown burrs on the ends of the branches are analogous to bracts on the burrs that later turn into purple flowers in the spring. The flowered burrs are disk flowers that have a discoid capitulum.
Amur Honeysuckle: Plant #3
This type of invasive plant is a Amur Honeysuckle. I have previously identified a honeysuckle, but I believe that this one is different and invasive compared to the other one previously. This type of honeysuckle is opposite leaved, with small dark green leaves that are waved and not ridged. Though they are not shown, this type of plant is known to grow red fruits on it. This woody shrub is an invasive plant that grows extremely quickly compared to other shrubs that are native to Ohio woodlands (McNeish & McEwan, 2016). This type of plant is also known to show variable traits in the species when exposed to different woodlands (McNeish & McEwan, 2016).
Another invasive plant that I came across in a patch of forestry by my home in Newark, Ohio is the Yellow Daylily. Though there is no flower shown because it is too late in the year, these plants have large yellow flowers that have sepals, and about 6 petals. These flowers have about 6 stamen and a stigma. The type of flower is almost shaped like a trumpet instrument. The leaves of the plant shown in the pictures, are long and non-ridged leaves. I found this plant in a patch of forestry by my home in Newark, Ohio.
Part 3: Eastern and Western Plants
Pitch Pine: Plant #1
This tree pictured is a Pitch Pine, which I found at Whetstone Park in Columbus, Ohio. This type of tree is commonly found in sandstone hills in the eastern part of Ohio. This is concluded from the article “Linking Geology and Botany… a new approach” by Jane L. Forsyth. This type of pine is one that I found to be connected to eastern Ohio, because it has pine cones on it, and it is found on hills.
Red Oak: Plant #2
I identified this particular tree as a red oak, which I observed in Columbus, Ohio at Whetstone Park. According to the article by Forsyth, this type of oak is found in western Ohio, where there are lime and clay substrates that dominate the location (Forsyth, 1971). The plains of western Ohio are known to have these types of plants.
Red Maple: Plant #3
This next plant is what I identified as a mountain maple. This type of tree is one that I found at Whetstone park in Columbus, Ohio. This type of Maple is found in western parts of Ohio, as found in the article by Forsyth (Forsyth, 1971). This type of maple is found on plains in parts of Ohio that are prominent with lime and clay geography.
This last plant here is one that is common in western Ohio, which is a sedge. This type of plant is found in plains of lime and clay areas (Forsyth, 1971). This type of bush is common to areas around my home in Newark, Ohio where I found this plant. Overall, I believe that there are many different plants shown here that are from both eastern and western Ohio, because they are from the middle of both places, being in central Ohio.
1) Jane L. Forsyth. 1971. Linking Geology and Botany… a new approach. Geology Department Bowling Green State University. The Explorer, V. 13, no. 3.